ole tu mano de breederhipiguayslegal.
¡Los emblemas!, ¡Los emblemas! Desechadles. Son capaces de volver a un hombre en un héroe.
Embadurnad todos los emblemas para que no se vean. Para que no se apoderen de los hombres y se conviertan en dioses. No se necesitan las epopeyas ni los Olimpos. ¡Fuera cuentos! ¡Abajo los emblemas fatuos y rapaces!
Si en el fondo estamos diciendo lo mismo, pero tu entras en tu espiral de comentarios y no miras el tema con algo más de perspectiva creo.
Es genetico el sexo sí, pero de una manera totalmente subordinada al etileno. Y a como la genetica de la planta lo emane en mayor o menor cantidad.
¿Hasta ahí lo ves bien o no?
Sobre ésos machos que salen de femis, precisamente tengo dos plantas de un cruce, de dicho macho con su hermana femi.. son de bella y son clavadas.. y no veo ningún fallo genetico ni nada de raro.. (ya se que me diras que si contaminación y tal)..
''…Toda la materia es meramente energía condensada en una lenta vibración, todos nosotros somos consciencia experimentándose a si misma subjetivamente. No existe tal cosa llamada muerte, la vida es solo un sueño, y nosotros somos la imaginación de nosotros mismos.’’ Bill Hicks
Existe al menos un rincón del universo que con toda seguridad puedes mejorar, y eres tú mismo. Aldous Huxley
Imágina que tienes una sativa completamente intersexual en todos los ejemplares o en muchos, pero que si te la fumas "te da superpoderes mentales" (hablo completamente en serio)
¿Merecería o no la pena seguir criándola?
Como se ha dicho antes, en el debate veo que los dos contendientes llevaís la razón.
Herencia del sexo por cromosomas sexuales:
XX(hembra) x XY(macho)
25%XX + 25%XX + 25%XY + 25%XY = 50% XX(hembras) + 50%XY(machos)
Herencia del sexo por dominancia-recesividad (se que que habrá un montón de genes más impicados pero no puedo secuenciar ahora mismo el ADN del Cannabis, tengo otras cosas que hacer con la batidora y el tostador tiene la resistencia rota y hay que hacerle un puente)
E-> Poca producción de etileno (dominante)
e-> Producción normal de etielno (recesivo)
Ee (poco etileno) -> macho
ee (mucho etileno)-> hembra
ee(hembra) x Ee(macho)
25% eE + 25% eE + 25% ee + 25% ee => 50% Ee (machos) + 50% ee (hembras)
Los porcentajes concuerdan con los de la herencia por cromosomas sexuales. Y es por ahí donde se hacen los estudios de herencia. (¡Quién me iba a decir a mi que esto servía para algo cuando me lo enseñaron )
En este caso el sexo seria una caracter más que por necesitarse de ambos para la reproducción se conservaría. y en el otro se podria averiguar el sexo haciendole un cariotipo, cosa que creo que no es viable en el Cannabis al contrario de lo que pasa en humanos.
También sucede que yo plante una vez al principio con la tierra que cogía debajo de un acebuche y em salieron 15 machos y tan solo 2 hembras, y dos más que planté luego ante tanto macho que me tenián acojonado de que darme sin semillas.
En años siguientes plante en Composana y de 23 plantas (en esa época era muy bruto plantando) obtuve tan solo 4 machos, si mal no recuerdo.
Así que por porcentajes a mi no me cuadran ninguna de las opciones que se suelen barajar.
Pero ausmiendo que la herencia es genetica, supongo quer si. Si no como dice Fuamchuuuu, las semilas feminzadas no lo serían (como pasaba al principiom cuando se hacian por estres, o con ácido giberélico).
Así que tenemos la certeza de que algo de determinación genética si que hay.
Tambien mis resultados, de abrumadoras mayorías de uno y otro sexo según el sustrato, con la mismas semillas y en las mismas condiones, me inducen a pensar a que algunas plantas, pueden decidirse por otra opción si el entorno no les es muy favotable para el inmenso gasto energético y de nutrientes que implica ser hembra y hacer semillas y resina.
Es aquí donde interviene la selección de las hembras a al hora de feminizar para que luego no aparezcan machos y hermafroditas, como pasaba con las primeras feminizadas. Además si mal no recuerdo se daban junto con las semillas unas recomendaciones de que para mayor númerod e hembras se debía plantar con mucha luminosidad, y un sustrato rico en nitrógeno y no recuerdo que más.
Tambien en la ruta metábolica de la producción de etileno intervendran varias enzimas, las cuales podran sufrir mutaciones diversas, así como los receptores que captan dicho etileno. Por lo cual no todo se reduce machos y hembras simplemente.
En cuanto a los poliploides, si recuerdo bien en el Marijuana Botany de Robert Connell Clarke, se sospechaba que las Thai (¡de aquella época, porque ahora...! ) tardaban mucho en florecer, se hacían muy altas, y tenían hojas, calices y semillas muy grandes, debido a que pudieran ser poliploides. Y según comenta no hay casos de Cannabis con poliploidia (a no ser que se le haya inducido con colchicina, claro).
No confundir un poliploide con una planta con tres o más cotiledones, no tienen nada que ver, )sweet, citrus taste. The calyxes of Thai strains are very large, as are the seeds and other anatomical features, leading to the misconception that strains may be polyploid. No natural polyploidy has been discovered in any strains of Cannabis though no one has ever taken the time to look thoroughly. The seeds are very large, ovoid, slightly flattened, and light brown or tan in color. The perianth is never mottled or striped except at the base. Greenhouses prove to be the best way to mature stubborn Thai strains in temperate climes.
Bueno, digo igual que antes, perdón por el tocho y si le es de ayuda a alguien me alegraría mucho.
Y si le veis faltas y errores, pues al cuello conmigo
Última edición por kalimocho; 15/06/2011 a las 15:46
Sitarbuda, ¿porque consideras que los fallos geneticos siempre son malos? De hecho nuevas especies y evoluciones salieron de fallos genéticos.
Si una especie es de una manera , y un individuo sale diferente por una alteración genética, es un fallo genético ....... y puede ese fallo genético, ser malo para el o ser beneficioso.
En el tema del sexo, en realidad al no diferenciarse tanto machos y hembras , y la diferencia en realidad es en los cambios que prodece dentro del sistema quimico hormonal, su genetica. Pues existir por alteración un sexo masculino en plantas feminizadas.
Igual como en humanos se dan casos de personas que geneticamente son mujeres , y sin embargo nacieron con organos reproductores masculinos ........ porque sus cromosoma masculino es raro , y se expresa de forma erronea.
¿es comun ? no , ¿Es un fallo genetico? pues si .........
Si no fuera el sexo literalmente genetico , podrias conseguir muchisimos machos de feminizadas . Y solo salen casos muy muy muy raros. Y machos 100% tampoco son.
¿dejaste florecer ese macho todo su ciclo haber si era hermi?
sativas que infunden poderes magicos ?? !! ............
te creo , te creo
esta es una de ellas ......
Uploaded with ImageShack.us
un saludo cannaca -.-
ole tu mano de breederhipiguayslegal.
¡Los emblemas!, ¡Los emblemas! Desechadles. Son capaces de volver a un hombre en un héroe.
Embadurnad todos los emblemas para que no se vean. Para que no se apoderen de los hombres y se conviertan en dioses. No se necesitan las epopeyas ni los Olimpos. ¡Fuera cuentos! ¡Abajo los emblemas fatuos y rapaces!
Que bonita san ca........
A un familiar mio se ve que le salió un macho de un paquete de autos feminizadas. yo no lo vi, pero me aseguró que era macho y no un mutante. Y no lo mató para que polinizara el resto de autos que tenia y sacarse semillas autos.
Cuando me lo dijo lo que le dije yo es que lo más seguro si viene de un paquete en el que todas son supuestas "hembras" que sea hermi o infertil. Pero me ha dicho que ha plantado algunas de esas semillas y que no ve nada raro... que le salen regulares (machos y hembras) pequeñas pero muy normalitas (en el sentido de que no son débiles, crecen y florecen normal) y que los machos son muy rapidos mostrando el sexo, que a las 2 semanas de germinar ya saca bolas.
Y las hembras catadas (pude catar algun porrito) , el resultado no está mal para ser auto (aunque ya se sabe que las ruderalis nunca van a pegar igual que las normales)
Quería exponer esto porque me pareció interesante y bastante curioso...
le he pedido algunas semis para ver el resultado.
Tu corazón, mitad de coca y de caballo
como me vuelvas a decir
que estas de mono, te machaco.
Pués hora me ha dado por mirar estudios sobre el cañamo industrial y me he encontrado unas cuantas sorpresas.
Professor Dr. Iv·n BÛcsa, the breeder of Kompolti hemp
Iv·n BÛcsa is the eldest and one of the most successful active hemp breeders of Europe. For 40 years, he improved eight state-registered fibre hemp varieties, four of which are still cultivated. The improvement of the first unisex hybrids (pure female F1 originating from a monoecious x dioecious crossing) and the development of Bredemann's idea and method are linked with his name.
During his career he bred only dioecious and unisex hybrids. He used monoecious varieties only as crossing partners because he was convinced (later proven by experimental evidence) that the monoecious varieties produce lower yields than the dioecious ones due to a 20 % inbreeding depression. He also improved the chlorophyll-deficient yellow-stemmed and the spherical ornamental varieties that characterise the extensiveness of his breeding work.
We introduce here a part of this multifarious and rich life-work via interview (12 October 1994).
Journal of the IHA: When was hemp introduced to Hungary?
Iv·n BÛcsa: We don't know exactly. The Slavic people, who inhabited what is now Hungary up 'till about 900 AD, probably cultivated hemp. The first written reference to hemp is found in a royal customs bill of Esztergom from 1198 AD (At the time Esztergom was the capital of Hungary, where the kings of the first dynasty ruled). In this 800-year old customs document written in Latin, hemp was mentioned together with flax. At the time, hemp was not imported into Hungary but was an age-old native crop. Until 1860-1870 hemp was grown and processed solely by peasants. After that time, Italian hemp cultivars, which were grown and processed on an industrial scale, were introduced into Hungary. Until 1960, peasant and industrial hemp production coexisted. The forced collectivisation of agriculture in 1960 caused the disappearance of hemp production by peasants.
JIHA: How did you get interested in hemp breeding?
IB: In 1949, at the beginning of my career, I was appointed as the assistant of Dr. Rudolf Fleischmann, who founded the Kompolt Research Institute in 1918 and who started working with hemp in 1920. His cultivar "Fleischmann" was very famous in all of Eastern and Central Europe. It replaced the Italian cultivars Carmagnola and Bolognese which were grown until then. Our cultivar "Kompolti" initially originated from "Fleischmann". After Fleischmann's death in 1951 his 'inheritance' was divided between the three breeders working at Kompolt. As I was the youngest of the three, I got the two crops the others did not want: hemp and alfalfa. Hemp was not an easy crop to do breeding work on, as there was not much literature available. At that time only German and Russian literature was available.
JIHA: Why have you bred dioecious cultivars while many other hemp breeders have developed monoecious cultivars?
Iv·n BÛcsa (Photo R.C. Clarke.)
IB: The natural state in which hemp appears was and is dioecious. Monoeciousness is artificial in hemp, it can only exist with the help of man, and without selection, the dioecious state will return in two or three generations. It is therefore very hard and demanding to keep 90 to 95 % monoeciousness during seed multiplications. Apart from that, however, monoecious hemp is appropriate only when the crop is grown for so-called double use, i.e. when both stem and seed are harvested. This is the case in France and in the former Soviet Union, where most crops are grown for double use. In a dioecious crop, the [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]male [COLOR=blue ! important]plants[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR] will be strongly deteriorated when the crop is harvested at seed ripeness, so in this case one needs monoecious cultivars. In Hungary and its neighbouring countries, like formerly in Italy, this double use is unknown. Here fibre hemp is grown as a dense crop which is harvested at the time of male flowering ("green hemp"), while [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]seed [COLOR=blue ! important]production[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR] takes place in crops grown at a low plant density and with completely different growing techniques. For this 'classic' use monoecious cultivars are of no use, so we never bred a monoecious cultivar.
Furthermore, monoeciousness has two large disadvantages. In the first place, all monoecious cultivars which I tested over the last 20 to 25 years yielded 10 to 20 % less than dioecious cultivars. This is caused by the possibility of self-pollination and the resulting inbreeding. With model experiments and with biometric determinations we have established that 20-25 % of self-pollination takes place in monoecious hemp, and this is the cause of the lower stem yield. In the second place, in monoecious hemp, the genetic progress for fibre content is slow, because the so-called Bredemann principle can not be used. The Bredemann principle consists of the rapid determination of fibre content in male plants before they flower, so that only the males with the highest fibre content are allowed to pollinate the female plants. In a breeding garden (nursery) of one hectare, I have 15,000 to 20,000 plants and I need only the very best 50 to 100 males for the pollination. (This can be compared to breeding of dairy cows, where a few hundred extremely good bulls inseminate all the cows of an entire country.) In monoecious hemp this approach can not be used, so the rate of genetic progress is only 50 % or less of that in dioecious hemp. In spite of these disadvantages, we use a monoecious hemp cultivar in breeding, but only as a parent for unisexual hemp.
JIHA: Which brings up the next question: why did you develop a unisex cultivar?
IB: After the collectivization of agriculture in Hungary in the early sixties, the farmers were no longer interested in producing hemp seed, an activity which has not been mechanized until the present day. As a result of this, seed for sowing became scarce and the hemp industry had to import poor-quality land races from Turkey. From the research conducted by McPhee, von Sengbusch and Hoffmann we know that when a monoecious hemp plant pollinates a dioecious female the offspring (F1) consists for over 90 % of females, for 3-5 % of monoecious plants bearing mainly female flowers and for only 2-3 % of true males. This small number of males however is sufficient to ensure adequate pollination of the crop. As the stand consists mainly of seed-bearing (female + monoecious) plants, with the same habit, we called it unisexual hemp. Such a stand yields 60 - 80 % more seed than a dioecious cultivar. The seed produced on this stand (F2) is used as sowing seed for fibre production. We called this cultivar "UNIKO-B". It is, in fact, a "single-cross" between Kompolti and Fibrimon, but it is the F2 generation which is commercialized. Von Sengbusch and Hoffmann described the phenomenon, but they did not think of its practical use. In Kompolt we make the cross between Kompolti and Fibrimon on a surface of 5 hectare (ha), this yields 2,500 kg of F1 seed. The F1 seed is sown on a surface of 500 ha, yielding 400,000 kg of F2 seed, which is used to sow 3,000-3,500 ha of fibre hemp.
Unisexuality also can be used to exploit the effect of heterosis which occurs when Chinese and European (Kompolti) cultivars are crossed. This heterosis can increase stem yield by 8-15 %. To be able to cross two cultivars we have to construct a female parent which is "male sterile", a unisexual F1 can be used as such. In order to obtain a unisexual chinese line we used Fibrimon as the donor, which was backcrossed many times until we obtained a monoecious line with a Chinese habit. We crossed this line with the original dioecious Chinese cultivar to obtain a unisexual Chinese F1. This F1 was crossed with Kompolti hemp to obtain Kompolti Hybrid TC. The stem yield of Kompolti Hybrid TC is 5-8 % higher than that of Kompolti. The unisexual Chinese F1 has an unsurpassed seed yield potential of up to 1,500-1,600 kg per ha.
JIHA: You made Kompolti Hybrid TC by crossing populations. Do you think much can be gained by using inbred lines to make hybrids?
IB: I can not answer this question because I never made inbred lines. It takes too long to make inbred lines and it is technically very difficult.
JIHA: What techniques did you use to develop your cultivars which have the highest fibre content of all existing hemp cultivars?
IB: As I explained in response to an earlier question, I used the Bredemann principle, which consists of the rapid determination of fibre content in male plants before they flower, so that only the males with the highest fibre content are allowed to pollinate the female plants. In some of my cultivars bark content is 38 - 40 %, this corresponds to a bast fibre content of 32 - 34 %. If the bark content is higher than 40 % the crop may lodge.
JIHA: How important is fibre quality relative to fibre content?
IB: Fibre quality is negatively related to fibre content. As we continue to select for fibre content we unwillingly increase the proportion of secondary fibre, which has a negative effect on fibre quality.
JIHA: Do cultivars differ in fibre fineness? IB: In a study comparing several cultivars on a number of locations, we found that the differences in fibre fineness between the locations were bigger than the differences between the cultivars.
JIHA: How did you develop Panorama, the world's only ornamental hemp cultivar?
IB: In a grow out of hemp from Lebanon we found two or three short and strongly branched plants. This character was lost in the F1, it reappeared in the F2. Through breeding I obtained a pure variety. We also made a monoecious version, because for an ornamental cultivar it is preferable if there are no male plants which die early. Panorama was commercialized in Hungary in the 1980s, but it was not much sold.
JIHA: How did you develop Kompolti S·rgasz·r™, the yellow stem hemp cultivar?
IB: Yellow stem was a mutation from professor Hoffmann, it was very early and very short. I crossed and backcrossed it often with the normal Kompolti to improve its stem yield and fibre content. In the end, we reached a very high fibre content, but its stem yield remained 15 % inferior to that of Kompolti. The textile factory liked the yellow stem very much, because in poor weather conditions the yellow stems can be dried in sheafs instead of being dried on the field. If this is done with normal hemp it causes problems because the stems in the middle of the sheaf do not lose their green colour, which eventually has a negative effect on the fibre colour.
JIHA: Current hemp cultivars were developed for textile fibre production. Do you think it will be feasible to develop special cultivars for seed production or for paper production?
IB: For textile production, new cultivars are not needed, because we have maximum stem yield and maximum fibre content. For paper production the high-fibre cultivars are very suitable, the presence of secondary bast fibre is no problem in this case. For seed production we have unisex, the single cross mother of Hybrid TC. It can yield up to 1,600 kg/ha of seed.
JIHA: What is the present status of your hemp cultivars, which can be bought in commercial quantities and through whom?
IB: Currently available are Kompolti, UNIKO-B, Kompolti Hybrid TC (but this cultivar contains too much THC for growing it in the EU) and Fibriko, which is like Kompolti Hybrid TC but with Kompolti S·rgasz·r™ instead of Kompolti as the father. Fibriko is not yellow but its fibre quality is better than that of Kompolti Hybrid TC. The cultivars belong to the GATE [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]Agricultural [COLOR=blue ! important]Research [/COLOR][COLOR=blue ! important]Institute[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR], but the institute is not allowed to do business, so a company called Fibroseed was founded. Fibroseed sells seed and pays the royalties to the GATE Institute.
JIHA: What was the most important discovery or technique in the history of hemp breeding?
IB: The use of the Bredemann principle was the most important innovation, the second most important contribution to hemp breeding was the development of monoecious hemp and in the third place I would list the making of unisexual hemp.
JIHA: What would be the most important developments to help make hemp a main-stream [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]agricultural[/COLOR][/COLOR] crop?
IB: First the laws which forbid hemp growing in a large number of countries will have to be changed. In the second place technical innovation is needed, we need better machines for harvesting and for the entire processing chain.
Por cierto, no recuerdo donde he leido, al contrario de lo que he dicho más arriba, que el cromosoma Y del Cannabis es reconocible en un cariotipo.Fibre hemp cultivars: A survey of origin, ancestry,
availability and brief agronomic characteristicsEtienne de MeijerHortaPharm B. V., Schinkelhavenkade 6,Meijer, E.P.M. de 1995. Fibre hemp cultivars: A survey of origin, ancestry, availability and brief agronomic characteristics Journal of the International Hemp Association 2(2): 66-73.
1075 VS Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Due to renewed interest in hemp, many experiments in Western Europe, Australia and Canada have been initiated which are aimed at (resumed) domestic hemp production. Obtaining sufficient seed quantities from a range of different cultivars is a practical difficulty often met by researchers. The present paper surveys the more or less currently available cultivars with respect to breeding history and provides addresses of seed suppliers. Agronomic characteristics assessed in standardized variety trials in the Netherlands are treated briefly.
There is a renewed interest in hemp as a source of cellulose fibre and seed oil in Western European countries, Australia, the US and Canada as these countries share a need for profitable arable non-[COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]food crops[/COLOR][/COLOR]. Many experiments which are aimed at the feasibility of domestic hemp production have recently been initiated. All Western countries, except France, have either never had a hemp industry, or have interrupted it for decades. A substantial hemp industry has survived only in Eastern Europe, the former Soviet-Union and China.
Presently, legal measures against Cannabis drug use in Western countries may improperly discourage any hemp activities, including research. Other obstacles generally faced by individuals wanting to resume a fibre hemp industry are more practical: local cultivars are extinct, there is no adequate harvesting machinery and fibre extraction technology is antiquated.
At least for the short term, the new initiatives must rely on cultivars imported from countries which currently breed hemp. As far as the author knows, the breeding of new domestic cultivars has only been pursued in a recent program the Netherlands (van Berlo, 1993) which focused on hemp grown as a raw material for pulp. This paper surveys national registration and registration in European Union member states, as far as could be traced, by country of origin the current cultivars, with regard to commercial availability. Further, it briefly presents some agronomic characteristics. The commercial availability of cultivars can rapidly change, and the assessment of the present situation, based on personal experience, hearsay and assumptions, may hence contain mis-information. Prices recently charged for seed for sowing are given when available.
The status with regard to registration in the European Union is relevant as within the EU cultivation of fibre crops including registered hemp cultivars is supported by an equivalent of ca US$ 1,050 per hectare. The reasons for this support are that fibre production in the EU does not meet the demand, and, that the yearly fluctuations in both production and prices are considered too strong. Out of the twelve presently registered EU cultivars only the seven French cultivars are readily available. In order to be less dependent on the French hemp seed distributor several cultivars originating outside the EU were submitted for EU registration in 1995, eight in Austria and three in the Netherlands. For 1996, other submissions probably concerning newly bred cultivars from within the EU are expected in the Netherlands. The procedure for registration takes two to three years and comprises research aimed at morphological distinctness and practical agronomic value of the submitted material in relation to reference cultivars. Once a cultivar is registered in a member state it will automatically be placed on the general EU register. This implies that its cultivation should be admitted by any member and that it should be eligible for EU subsidy. However, a member state may obstruct admittance on the ground of lack of quality or distinctness in relation to domestic cultivars and of course national drug legislation may hamper actual application.
Fibre hemp in the Cannabis genepool
All strains within the genus Cannabis intercross readily (Small, 1972) and the pattern of variation for all morphological and agronomic traits is continuous (Small et al., 1976). Hence there is little reason to distinguish other species than the single C. sativa L. Morphologically discriminated subspecies and varieties are not very suitable to indicate plant groups of various economic interest. Non-biosystematic classifications, for example based on purpose and status of domestication, are more appropriate to circumscribe such groups. Accordingly, one can distinguish truly wild and naturalized populations, fibre landraces and fibre cultivars, drug strains and even ornamentals. Such pre-defined 'plant-use groups' (de Meijer, 1994) can be recognized quite well on the basis of experimental observations of agronomic traits. Contents of bark fibre and cannabinoids, the major goals of domestication, are fairly discriminative between groups.
From the breeding histories it is evident that a considerable mutual genetic relatedness exists among the modern European and West Asian cultivars. Landraces belonging to the Mediterranean and Central Russian fibre hemp ecotype groups and cross-progenies of these two groups have directly been the basis of, or have been used as breeding parent for, each of the present European and West Asian cultivars (Fig. 1). Fibre strains from China (Far Eastern hemp) may be somewhat distinct from the previous ones. References on Chinese fibre strains are hardly available, indicating that landraces are still primarily cultivated. At the beginning of the 20th century Chinese landraces were used to select the now extinct Kentucky hemp cultivars that were cultivated until the mid-1950s in the United States. The first improved selection from Chinese origin was called ‘Minnesota No. 8’ (Dewey, 1913). Dewey (1927) gives the ancestries of the later developed Kentucky cultivars: ‘Kymington’ was selected from the progeny of a free-pollinated single [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]female [COLOR=blue ! important]plant[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR] of ‘Minnesota No. 8’. ‘Chington’ was obtained by successive individual selection in the progeny of a single female plant from a different introduction from China. ‘Arlington’ was selected from the progeny of the crossing (‘Kymington’ x ‘Chington’). ‘Ferramington’ was selected from the progeny of a cross between the Northern Italian landrace ‘Ferrara’ and ‘Kymington’. A Chinese strain is presently used in Hungary as a heterosis breeding parent which is relatively unrelated to the crossing partners of European origin (BÛcsa 1954).
Naturalized (weedy) Cannabis populations (sometimes indicated as C. ruderalis Janischevsky; C. sativa ssp. ruderalis or C. sativa var. spontanea) which persist in many continental areas descend from previously cultivated fibre hemp crops and can hence be considered related to fibre strains once grown at a certain location. They are, however, completely different in appearance. Close relatedness between drug and fibre strains seems unlikely due to geographic isolation and the long-lasting distinct human utilizations of the two groups.
Continuación del anterior, que no cabía completo.
Origin, breeding history, registration and availability
The cultivars below are presented by country. Each current cultivar name, unlike those of its ancestors, is printed once in boldface. The sexual type (monoecious, dioecious, unisexual), being a trait closely linked to breeding strategy, is usually given. Other agronomic characteristics are treated in the next section. It should be realized that the preservation of any desired agronomic trait in hemp cultivars, especially the monoecious character, requires continuous selection during seed multiplication.
Cultivars from France are bred and commercialized by the FÈdÈration Nationale des Producteurs de Chanvre (FNPC), 20, rue Paul Ligneul, F-72000, Le Mans, France; Fax: +33 4377 0916. French cultivars are monoecious. In France they are grown for pulp. Their cultivation within the EU is eligible for the subsidy on fibre crops. Current breeding in France is mainly aimed at maintenance of the present cultivars (conservative breeding) and at further reduction of their THC content. Seed for sowing is readily available in two qualities. Crops grown from first quality seed (elite seed) consist almost exclusively of monoecious plants. Those from second quality seed (harvested from free-pollinated crops raised from elite seed) comprise, due to natural genetic drift, 15 to 30% males as well as a substantial amount of true-female plants. In 1995 prices were 19.30 FF/kg (ca US$ 4.00) for first quality seeds and 14.80 FF/kg (ca US$ 3.00) for second class seed. Within France, for FNCP members, seed is cheaper (O. Beherec, pers. comm., 1995).
All French cultivars are either selected directly from 'Fibrimon' (truly-monoecious cultivars), or from cross-progenies of 'Fibrimon' and several dioecious exotic fibre strains (pseudo-monoecious cvs.). 'Fibrimon' is a monoecious cross-bred cultivar with high fibre content. It was bred at the German Max-Planck-Institut Hamburg-Volksdorf by von Sengbusch between 1951 and 1955 (Bredemann et al., 1961). The parental populations were: inbred material obtained from monoecious plants spontaneously occurring in 'Havell”ndische' or 'Schurigs' hemp which was again a selection from Central-Russian origin (Hoffmann, 1961); dioecious selections with very high fibre content from Germany (also retained from Central-Russian populations) and dioecious late-flowering landraces from Italy and Turkey. 'Fibrimon' was transferred to France, among other countries, in the late 1950s. The crossing of selected exotic populations with 'Fibrimon' was carried out in the 1960s.
Most details on the breeding of French cvs. are based on J.P. Mathieu (pers. comm., 1992). The current cultivars 'Fibrimon 21', 'Fibrimon 24' and 'Fibrimon 56', were selected directly from 'Fibrimon' for diverging dates of maturity. 'FÈrimon 12' is an early maturing selection from 'Fibrimon 21', especially intended for [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]seed [COLOR=blue ! important]production[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR]. The higher the numbers added to the names of French cultivars, the later they are supposed to flower and mature.
'FÈdora 19' is the result of a cross between female plants of the Russian dioecious cv. JUS 9 and monoecious individuals from 'Fibrimon 21', followed by back-crossing of the unisexual female F1with 'Fibrimon 21' intersex plants. The parent 'JUS 9' is an offspring from a crossing between 'Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya' (originally selected from Italian hemp) and dwarf northern Russian hemp.
Likewise, 'FÈlina 34' results from a cross between the dioecious parent 'Kompolti', and 'Fibrimon 24', followed by back-crossing with 'Fibrimon 24'.
'FÈdrina 74' and 'Futura 77' both result from a cross between the dioecious parent 'Fibridia' and 'Fibrimon 24' followed by back-crossing with 'Fibrimon 24'. 'Fibridia' is described by Bredemann et al. (1961). It originates from the same German program as 'Fibrimon' and has the same ancestors, except the monoecious 'Schurigs' inbreds.
A new completely THC-free cultivar, with name and pedigree unknown to the author has been registered in 1995 (O. Beherec, pers. comm., 1995).
Present Hungarian fibre hemp cultivars originate from the GATE-"Rudolf Fleischmann" [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]Agricultural [COLOR=blue ! important]Research Institute[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR], H-3356 Kompolt (Heves), Hungary; Fax: +36 36 489 000. Current activities at GATE with respect to fibre hemp are mainly restricted to maintenance of the existing cultivars. However, in the context of an agreement with HempFlax b.v. (Netherlands), creative breeding has been resumed to create an early maturing dioecious cultivar for Western-Europe. Hungarian cultivars are generally dioecious and used for production of rope and technical fabrics. Seeds from the cultivars listed below, except 'Kompolti S·rg·szar™', are readily commercially available from the company Fibroseed (which can be reached through the GATE institute). Recent (1995) prices were ca US$ 3.50/kg.
Details on the breeding of Hungarian cvs. are based on I. BÛcsa (pers. comm., 1995) and BÛcsa (1995). 'Kompolti' has been selected for high fibre content from 'Fleischmann hemp' or 'F-hemp' which is from Italian origin. It was registered in 1954. To make it eligible for EU subsidy it was submitted in 1995 for registration in the Netherlands, by Hemcore Ltd., as well as in Austria, by Raiffaisen Waren Austria (RWA).
The chlorophyll-deficient yellow-stemmed 'Kompolti S·rgasz·r™' was registered in 1974, but is however not currently cultivated. It was obtained from a cross between a spontaneous yellow-stemmed mutant from Germany (Helle Stengel-Hoffmann, found in the offspring of a cross between Finnish early and Italian late hemp) and 'Kompolti', which was repeatedly back-crossed with 'Kompolti' (BÛcsa, 1969). Small seed quantities of 'Kompolti S·rgasz·r™' are available for research purposes.
Hungary is the only country where heterosis breeding of hemp became implemented. This resulted in several F1 hybrid cultivars. A single cross hybrid cultivar is 'Uniko-B' (registered in 1969). It is a hybrid progeny of ('Kompolti' x 'Fibrimon 21') where the monoecious 'Fibrimon 21' acts as pollen spender. The F1, being almost unisexual female, is used to produce an F2, containing ca 30% males, which is cultivated for fibre. 'Uniko-B' was recently submitted for registration in Austria by RWA.
'Kompolti Hybrid TC' (registered in 1983) is a three-way-cross hybrid in which two selections from Chinese origin, 'Kinai KÈtlaki' (dioecious) and 'Kinai Egylaki' (monoecious), and 'Kompolti' are combined. The first step of the crossing ('Kinai dioecious' x 'Kinai monoecious'), where the monoecious parent acts as pollen spender, gives a unisexual, almost pure female F1, called 'Kinai Uniszex'. This unisexual progeny can be considered as an analogue for male sterile breeding lines. It is subsequently used as female parent in the crossing ('Kinai Uniszex' x 'Kompolti') which produces the commercial three-way-cross hybrid 'Kompolti Hybrid TC', which has again a 50/50 sex ratio.
'Fibriko' (registered 1989) is the most recent Hungarian hybrid. It results from a three-way cross for which 'Kinai dioecious' and 'Kinai monoecious' are first crossed to produce the unisexual female progeny 'Kinai Uniszex', which is subsequently crossed with the yellow-stemmed pollen spender 'Kompolti S·rgasz·r™'. However, 'Fibriko' is not yellow-stemmed, as the normal green stem (from 'Kinai Uniszex') dominates over yellow.
The Institute of Natural Fibres (INF), Wojska Polskiego 71B, 60-630 Poznan, Poland; Fax: +4861 417 830, is responsible for the breeding and supply of sowing material of Polish hemp. The current Polish cultivars 'Bialobrzeskie' and 'Beniko' are monoecious. They are mainly intended for production of cordage, military fabrics, blended yarns (hemp with wool and cotton), fibre board and technical oil products. Seeds of both 'Bialobrzeskie' and 'Beniko' are readily available, recently (1995) charged prices by INF were US$ 3.00/kg.
Creative hemp breeding has continued at INF and recently resulted in monoecious cultivars with the tentative names 'W-1', 'Dolnoslaskie' and 'D/83' (R. Kozlowski, pers. comm., 1995). The author is not familiar with the ancestry of these potential cultivars. They are low in THC and have better (finer) fibre quality for textiles than 'Bialobrzeskie' and 'Beniko'. 'W-1' and 'Dolnoslaskie' have been submitted to national registration tests but now seem to have been withdrawn again, and 'D-83' is still in the breeding process.
Details on the breeding of Polish cvs. are based on B. Jaranowska (pers. comm. 1992). 'Bialobrzeskie', registered in 1968, is the result of a multiple crossing of dioecious and monoecious strains: ((('LKCSD' x 'Kompolti') x 'Bredemann 18') x 'Fibrimon 24'), followed by long term [COLOR=blue ! important][COLOR=blue ! important]plant [COLOR=blue ! important]selection[/COLOR][/COLOR][/COLOR] for fibre content. The dioecious parent 'LKCSD' was selected from 'Havell”ndische' or 'Schurigs' hemp from Central-Russian origin. The dioecious 'Bredemann 18' is a selection from Germany (originally also Central Russian) and is very rich in fibre. 'Bialobrzeskie' is submitted for registration in Austria by Saatbau Linz (I. BÛcsa, pers. comm., 1995).
The most recent cultivar Beniko is a progeny, obtained by individual selection, from the crossing ('Fibrimon 24' x 'Fibrimon 21'). It was registered in Poland in 1985. To make it eligible for EU subsidy, 'Beniko' was submitted for registration in 1995 in the Netherlands by HempFlax B.V., as well as in Austria by Saatbau Linz (I. BÛcsa, pers. comm., 1995).
The current Romanian hemp cultivars originate from three different breeding institutes. At least the Agricultural Research Station in Secuieni is still involved in creative hemp breeding. Romania produces hemp fabrics and yarns in fine qualities.
'Fibramulta 151' originates from the Research Institute of Crops and Industry Plants in Fundulea and was registered in 1965. It is a dioecious selection from the single cross ('ICAR 42-118' x 'Fibridia'). The parent 'ICAR 42-118' is a cross progeny of Italian ('Carmagnola' and Bologna hemp) and Turkish ('Kastamonu') strains (Hoffmann, 1961). Details on the availability of seed are not known.
The dioecious 'Lovrin 110' originates from the Agricultural Research Station, Lovrin, Jud. Timisoara. It was registered in 1981, as a replacement for 'Fibramulta 151'. It was bred by selection among family groups from the Bulgarian Silistra landrace ('Silistrenski'). Details on its availability are unknown.
The monoecious 'Secuieni 1' originates from the Agricultural Research Station, Secuieni (Neamt county) and is presently commercialized by Rohemp S.A., Str. Limpejoarci nr. 8 sector 1, Bucharest, Romania; Fax: +40 1 210 1261. Rohemp is represented in Austria by J. Hofer, Tendlergasse 12/003, A-1090 Wien; Phone/Fax: +43 222 4036039. It was state registered in 1984. To make it eligible for EU subsidy it was submitted for registration in 1995 in the Netherlands by Hemcore Ltd., as well as in Austria by Rohemp S.A. 'Secuieni 1' results from the crossing ('Dneprovskaya 4' x 'Fibrimon') followed by two back-crosses with 'Fibrimon 21' and 'Fibrimon 24', respectively. The Russian dioecious parent 'Dneprovskaya 4' was selected from 'Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya' which, again, was obtained from Italian hemp.
Besides 'Secuieni 1', the recently released cv. Irene is also commercially available through Rohemp and was submitted by this company for registration in Austria in 1995. The breeding history of this cv. is unknown to the author.
In 1995, Rohemp charged 5 DM/kg (ca US$ 3.50) for the seed of both 'Secuieni 1' and 'Irene'.
Cultivars from the former USSR
Eight cultivars are presently cultivated in the central and southern parts of the Ukraine and Russia. They are used for the production of shipping cordage, ropes, core for steel cables, twines and, technical fabrics. Hemp cultivars in the former USSR are classified into maturity groups or geographical types. Current cultivars belong either to the southern, late maturing group, bred at the Agricultural Research Institute of Krasnodar or to a group of hybrid progenies from central and southern hemp. Cultivars of the latter group are intended for cultivation at higher latitudes than to which they are ecologically adapted. They were generally bred at, and are commercialized by the (former) Federal Research Institute of Fibre Plants, today called: Ukrainian Institute of Bast Crops, Lenina street 45, 245130 Sumy Region, Glukhov, Ukraine; Fax: +380 54 4422643. At least two of the latter group of cultivars, USO-11 and USO-13, are also commercially available through the Krasnohirska company, located near Zolotonosha, Ukraine; Fax + 380 472 450808. Recently (1995) charged prices by Krasnohirska were US$ 2/kg.
Data on the ancestries of former USSR cvs. are partly based on unpublished notes of K. Hillig (Indiana University). The dioecious southern type cultivar Kuban was registered in 1984. It was obtained by ten cycles of family group selection in the hybrid progeny from ('Szegedi 9' x 'Krasnodarskaya 56'). The breeding parent 'Szegedi 9' was selected in Hungary from the Tiborsz·ll·si landrace. 'Krasnodarskaya 56' is probably a selected cross progeny from local Caucasian and Italian strains (Hoffmann, 1961).
The dioecious southern cv. Zenica (synonym 'Shenitsa') was registered in 1990. The ancestry is unknown to the author.
The monoecious southern cv. Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6 is obtained by family group selection in the progeny from ('Szegedi 9' x 'Fibrimon 56'). It was registered in 1980.
The remaining current cultivars have a southern phenological pattern but are cultivated at higher latitudes. They are all monoecious. Their names generally provide specifications with respect to ecotype (yuzhnaya = southern) and the monoecious character (odnodomnaya). Identical cultivar names, only differing in the added numbers, do not necessarily indicate common ancestry.
'Zolotonoshskaya Yuzhnosozrevayushchaya Odnodomnaya 11' (synonyms: 'Zolotonoshskaja 11' and 'Zolotonosha 11'; abbreviated 'USO-11' or 'YUSO-11') was registered in 1984. Parental populations used for the breeding of this cultivar are 'Dneprovskaya 4', 'YUSO-21' and 'Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6' (N.M. Orlov, pers. comm. via J. Masura, 1995). The dioecious parent 'Dneprovskaya 4' was selected from 'Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya' which again was obtained from Italian hemp. The ancestry of parent 'YUSO-21' is not known.
'Zolotonoshskaya 13' (synonym: 'Zolotonosha 13'; abbreviated 'USO-13' or 'YUSO-13') was registered in 1986. It is a selected progeny from ('YUSO-16' x 'Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6') (Orlov et al., 1987). 'USO-13' is submitted for registration in Austria, probably by Saatbau Linz (I. BÛcsa, pers. comm., 1995).
'Yuzhnosozrevayushchaya Odnodomnaya 14' (abbreviated: 'YUSO-14' or 'JSO-14') was registered in 1980. It is a further selection from 'YUSO-1', which again is a cross progeny from ('JUS-6' x 'Odnodomnaya Bernburga'). The dioecious parent 'JUS-6' was selected from ('Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya' x 'dwarf Northern Russian hemp'). 'Yuzhnaya Krasnodarskaya' is originally selected from Italian hemp. 'Odnodomnaja Bernburga' is a monoecious cultivar which was originally produced in Germany in the 1940s at the Akademie der Landwirtschaftwissenschaften in Bernburg under the name 'Bernburger einh”usigen' (Hoffmann, 1961).
'YUSO-16' or 'JSO-16' was registered in 1980, it is selected from the French cv. Fibrimon 56.
'YUSO-31' or 'JSO-31' was registered in 1987. It was selected from the crossing ('Glukhovskaja 10' x 'YUSO-1'). The parental population 'Glukhovskaja 10' is a selection from the central Ukrainian Novgorod-Seversk landrace. The ancestry of 'YUSO-1' is described above under 'YUSO-14'.
Apart from the previous cultivars, the landrace 'Ermakovskaya Mestnaya' seems to be cultivated at a significant scale in Siberia. It belongs to the Central-Russian maturity group. It is not clear whether it really is a landrace in the strict sense that it is maintained only through mass-selection by local farmers, but its fibre content is indeed low (BÛcsa, pers. comm., 1995).
Creative hemp breeding is still continued in the Ukraine and Russia. For example the cv. Zolotonosha 15 ('USO-15') was developed this year by family group selection among the cross-progeny from ('USO-11 x 'USO-13') (J. Masura, pers. comm., 1995).
The EU list of cultivars of agricultural crops includes three Italian hemp cultivars: 'Carmagnola', 'CS' and 'Fibranova' which are commercially represented by the Istituto Sperimentale per le Colture Industriali, Via di Corticella 133, 40129 Bologna; Fax: +39 51 374857. These cultivars have been practically unavailable for a few decades. Recently the Instituto Sperimentale per le Colture Industriali has started to multiply again ‘Carmagnola’ and ‘Fibranova’ (G. Grassi, pers. comm., 1995). Legal obstacles, however, seem to obstruct the commercial distribution of seed. So far, small samples of these cultivars are available for research purposes only. Two additional Italian cvs., 'Eletta Campana' and 'Superfibra', are listed by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) on the schemes for the varietal certification of seed moving in international trade. They are said to be distributed by the Istituto di Agronomia Generale e Coltivazione Erbacee Universita degli Studi, 80055 Porticci-Napoli, but they are not really available. The general unavailability of Italian cultivars is probably due to legal reasons. Hemp cultivation is prohibited in Italy as long as there isn't a cultivar with a morphological marker which is genetically linked to low THC-content (pers. comm., Ranalli, 1994, via I. BÛcsa). A research program aiming at such a solution seems to have been activated in 1994 (G. Grassi, pers. comm., 1995).
'Carmagnola' is a Northern Italian landrace (Allavena, 1967). 'CS' or 'Carmagnola Selezionata' is dioecious and selected in the early 1960s from 'Carmagnola' (Allavena, 1967).
'Fibranova' is a dioecious cultivar, selected in the 1950s from the progeny of ‘Bredemann Eletta’ x ‘Carmagnola’ (Allavena, 1961). The parent ‘Bredemann Eletta’ (or ‘Bredemann Elite’) which was received from the German Max-Planck-Institut, is one of Bredemann’s high fibre selections obtained from Northern and/or Central Russian hemp strains, as were used in the breeding of ‘Fibrimon’ and ‘Bialobrzeskie’.
'Eletta Campana' (dioecious) resulted from a cross between the Carmagnola landrace and high fibre strains from German origin, most likely 'Fibridia' or again one of the Bredemann selections.
No information was found on the pedigree of 'Superfibra'.
Cultivars from ex-Yugoslavia
Seven dioecious hemp cultivars were registered in the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Among them were five of foreign origin: ‘Kompolti’, ‘Kompolti S·rgasz·r™’, ‘Kompolti Hybrid TC’ and ‘Uniko B’ (Hungarian), and ‘Fibranova’ (Italian) which are treated elsewhere in this article. Two registered domestic cultivars were ‘Flajsmanova’ and ‘Novosadska konoplja’ (J. Spanring, pers, comm., 1995).
Presently hemp production is organized mostly in the present Yugoslavia (Serbia). Also in Croatia there may be some cultivation, the other republics have no significant hemp production. The crop is mainly grown for textile production. In the last decade, for this purpose, the imported hybrids ‘Kompolti Hybrid TC’ and ‘Uniko B’ were used. Until 5 to 10 years ago the improved cultivar Fibranova especially was used for small scale birdseed production (J. Berenji, pers. comm., 1995).
In the present Yugoslavia there is a tendency to replace gradually the imported cultivars by domestic ones. ‘Novosadska konoplja’ is the only available registered domestic cultivar. Large scale seed production has been resumed in 1995. The yield of certified seed is intended to cover 40% of the textile hemp area (1,000 ha) which is planned for 1996. Breeding activities at the Institute of Field Crops and Vegetables (Novi Sad) are aimed at new domestic cultivars for the future (J. Berenji, pers. comm., 1995).
‘Novosadska konoplja’ is an improved selection from ‘Flajsmanova’ which is the same as ‘Fleischmann hemp’ (from Italian origin, see under Hungarian cultivars). It was bred in the 1950s, but included in the former Federal cultivar register only since 1989. ‘Novosadska konoplja’ is maintained and commercialized by Dr. Berenji, Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, 21470 Backi Petrovac, Yugoslavia; Fax: +381 21 780 198. Seed prices charged to the (almost) single customer, the domestic hemp industry who distributes to contracted farmers, are 3.5-3.7 DM/kg (ca US $2.50/kg). Small amounts of seed are sold to individual farmers at 4-5 DM/kg (ca US $ 2.80-3.50) for birdseed production (only 1-2% of the total hemp area).
In Slovenia the seven cultivars from the Federal register are proposed for registration in 1996. Some selections from indigenous landraces are presently under study at the Biotechnical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). They were selected for seed as well as fibre production and received tentative names as ‘Rudnik’ and ‘Pesnica’. Some of these materials may be released as cultivars in the future (J. Spanring, pers. comm., 1995).
The EU hemp cultivar list includes 'Delta-405' and 'Delta-Llosa' from Spain. Breeder and owner is the specialty pulp manufacturer Celulosa de Levante SA, C/Tuset 8-10, 08006 Barcelona, Spain; Fax: +34 93 2906126. 'Delta-405' and 'Delta Llosa' have been grown for pulp production by Celulosa de Levante until 1992, nowadays they use French cultivars for this purpose (R. Ripol, pers. comm., 1995). References on the two Spanish cultivars could not be traced. In spite of enquiries addressed to 'Celulosa' the breeding histories have not been elucidated. Evidently, 'Delta-405' and 'Delta Llosa' are not commercially available.
Former Czechoslovakian cultivars
The OECD schemes for the varietal certification of seed moving in international trade include the former Czechoslovakian cultivar Rastslaviska (synonym 'Rastislavicke'). It is said to be represented by Slovosivo, Zahradnicka 21, 881 26 Bratislava, (the present) Slovakia. References to this cultivar were not found. According to BÛcsa however (pers. comm., 1995) it is (was) rather a landrace (of southern European type) than a cultivar. The former Czechoslovakia has never had its own hemp breeding. Until 1980 Hungarian cultivars were grown. Seed of 'Rastslaviska' is unavailable.
Future German cultivars
At the end of 1995 a newly bred early-maturing German monoecious fibre and seed cultivar, called 'Fasamo', was submitted to the Bundessortenamt in Hannover for research aimed at registration and admittance in Germany (L. Loch, pers. comm., 1995). The 40 years of breeding work was the private enterprise of Dr. Lothar Loch, Berlin. The commercial representative will be Norddeutsche Pflanzenz¸cht Hans-Georg Lembke KG, Hohenlieth, 24363 Holtsee, Germany. 'Fasamo' was obtained from a cross-progeny of 'Schurigs' hemp and 'Bernburger einh”usigen', monoecious hemp bred in Bernburg in the 1940s (Hoffman 1961).
Tan largo, tan largo que no cabía entero.
Numerous references on agronomic performance, under various cultural treatments in various locations, are available for most of the above mentioned cultivars. However, as the expression of quantitative agronomic traits depends more or less strongly on the environment, such data cannot simply be pooled in one table.
Twenty-four of the described fibre cultivars have been tested simultaneously in standardized trials in the context of the evaluation of the CPRO Cannabis germplasm collection in Wageningen, the Netherlands. Some of the traits involved were: the pattern of phenological development (being related to potential stem and seed production); stem quality (characterized by the fractions of woody core, secondary bark fibre and primary bark fibre as well as by the length of woody core fibres); contents of the cannabinoids THC and CBD, and resistance to soil pathogens (root-knot nematodes). Brief results of this evaluation are summarized in Table 1 (for methods see: de Meijer, 1994). Due to the extreme plasticity of some of the tested traits, especially phenological patterns and cannabinoid contents, the reported absolute values apply for the Netherlands only. However, assuming little interaction between cultivars and latitudes, one can expect that ranking orders of cultivars for most traits are fairly stable.
Statements on the practical suitability of cultivars are omitted as, e.g. in the case of phenological pattern, stem and seed yield potential and stem quality, such judgements depend on the purpose for which cultivars are cultivated. However, low THC content and a poor host-suitability to Meloidogyne (low values for GAL and EGG in Table 1), are unambiguously favourable.
- Allavena, D., 1961. Fibranova, nuova varieta di canapa ad alto contenuto di fibra. Sementi Elette 5: 34-44.
- Allavena, D., 1967. CS, eine neue Sorte des zweih”usigen Hanfes. Fibra 12: 17-24.
- Berlo, J.M. van, 1993. [Paper from hemp grown in the Netherlands. Final report of four years of research on hemp: Business Concept and foundations] [Dutch]. ATO-DLO, Wageningen, 222 pp.
- BÛcsa, I., 1954. [Results of heterosis breeding in hemp] [Hungarian]. N–vÈnytermelÈs 3: 301-313.
- BÛcsa, I., 1969. Die Z¸chtung einer hellstengeligen, s¸dlichen Hanfsorte. Zeitschrift f¸r Pflanzenz¸chtung 62: 231-240.
- BÛcsa, I., 1995. Die Hanfz¸chtung in Ungarn; Zielersetzungen, Methoden und Ergebnisse. in: nova-Institut (Hrsg.): Bioresource hemp, Conference reader, second edition, Frankfurt 2.3.-5.3.1995.
- Bredemann, G., K. Garber, W. Huhnke & R. von Sengbusch, 1961. Die Z¸chtung von mon–zischen und di–zischen, faserertragreichen Hanfsorten Fibrimon und Fibridia. Zeitschrift f¸r Pflanzenz¸chtung 46: 235-245.
- Dewey, L. H. 1913. Hemp. Yearbook of the USDA, 1913: 283-316.
- Dewey, L. H. 1927. Hemp varieties of improved type are result of selection. Yearbook of the USDA, 1927.: 358-361.
- Hoffmann, W., 1961. Hanf, Cannabis sativa. In H. Kappert & W. Rudorf (eds.). Handbuch der Pflanzenz¸chtung, Band V, Paul Parey, Berlin-Hamburg, pp 204-261.
- Meijer, E.P.M. de, 1994. Diversity in Cannabis. Doctoral thesis, Wageningen Agricultural University.
- Orlov, N.M., L.G. Orlova, A.D. Cherevan & S.M. Lupach, [Hemp variety Zolotonoshkaya 13] [Russian] Len i Konoplya (1987) No. 3, 43. (Cited from Field Crop Abstr. 41: 2675).
- Small, E., 1972. Interfertility and chromosomal uniformity in Cannabis. Canadian Journal of Botany 50: 1947-1949.
- Small, E., P.Y. Jui & L.P. Lefkovitch, 1976. A numerical taxonomic analysis of Cannabis with special reference to species delimitation. Systematic Botany 1: 67-84.Table 1. Agronomic evaluation data for twenty-four fibre cultivars (source: de Meijer, 1994). Column abbreviations: THC = THC content (%); CBD = CBD content (%); ANT = date of flowering (day number); MAT = date of seed maturity (day number); HEI = height of mature female plants (cm); LEN = wood fibre length (µm); WOO = woody core mass fraction in stem (%); SEC = secondary bark fibre mass fraction in stem (%); PRI = primary bark fibre mass fraction in stem (%); TOT = total bark fibre mass fraction in stem (%); GAL = number of Meloidogyne root-galls per g root fresh weight; EGG = number of Meloidogyne egg masses per g root fresh weight.
Cultivar THC CBD ANT MAT HEI LEN WOO SEC PRI TOT GAL EGG CPRO no.
FÈrimo 12 880827 0.17 1.16 172 253 269 534 57.1 3.9 21.1 25.0 142.4 87.5 FÈdora 19 883065 0.26 1.40 168 250 221 538 63.7 3.3 16.2 19.5 159.9 94.3 Fibrimon 24 880824 0.26 1.34 203 250 285 526 57.8 4.9 19.3 24.2 149.6 85.3 Felina 34 880826 0.15 1.59 187 253 236 515 60.6 5.2 20.1 25.3 144.1 94.6 Fibrimon 56 880828 0.30 1.18 183 255 224 487 59.6 2.3 20.9 23.2 147.7 74.8 883041 0.25 1.02 204 258 265 570 60.7 4.0 19.8 23.8 172.4 99.9 883067 0.54 1.69 198 250 238 551 67.5 3.3 14.1 17.5 169.7 95.8 891158 0.21 1.07 213 260 273 526 62.7 3.6 18.9 22.5 143.3 83.6 FÈdrina 74 880825 0.25 1.67 176 263 261 546 60.0 3.6 18.9 22.6 155.9 89.6 Futura 77 880823 0.15 1.20 212 260 360 538 59.5 5.7 17.1 22.8 191.8 113.2 883066 0.32 1.76 215 262 292 536 62.3 6.7 17.0 23.7 158.9 65.2 Kompolti 883048 0.10 1.51 234 275 330 538 50.3 6.7 22.4 29.1 130.0 63.8 891069 0.15 1.38 233 274 247 549 53.5 9.9 18.1 28.0 148.3 78.5 Kompolti S·rgasz·r™ 883049 0.25 1.08 198 275 257 531 52.2 12.6 19.6 32.2 79.1 27.1 Kompolti Hybrid TC 883047 0.63 1.01 223 273 278 548 56.6 6.6 19.3 25.9 131.3 64.2 891071 0.69 0.92 213 271 272 556 57.1 7.4 18.5 25.9 113.4 63.3 891343 0.55 0.78 229 266 263 556 55.2 8.2 18.8 26.9 109.5 54.1 Uniko-B 883045 0.35 0.92 213 263 285 538 52.5 8.6 22.1 30.8 160.0 89.2 891070 0.22 1.21 219 264 258 537 54.3 10.3 18.4 28.8 142.8 80.6 Bialobrzeskie 891223 0.26 0.58 176 238 292 489 52.9 6.6 22.9 29.5 143.7 85.8 921019 0.13 1.33 181 240 263 536 53.7 6.1 23.0 29.1 * * Beniko 921040 0.34 1.15 178 240 259 526 53.9 7.8 24.9 32.7 * * Fibramulta 151 883174 0.24 1.53 192 262 282 554 70.4 2.2 14.1 16.3 145.1 48.5 Lovrin 110 883173 0.66 1.29 184 263 282 493 60.7 5.7 16.1 21.8 148.6 70.3 Secuieni 1 883172 0.75 1.13 206 253 308 544 59.4 6.0 20.5 26.5 153.8 88.5 Dneprovskaya Odnodomnaya 6 891326 0.06 0.64 186 244 263 522 59.8 6.0 16.3 22.3 154.6 78.0 USO-11 891186 0.12 0.96 193 246 247 541 57.4 5.6 19.1 24.7 161.5 102.1 USO-13 891187 0.05 1.12 189 248 240 538 59.0 6.9 19.2 26.1 176.3 110.6 YUSO-14 891228 0.03 0.92 140 234 261 533 56.6 4.1 22.6 26.7 141.4 66.0 YUSO-16 891229 0.05 0.66 154 205 232 528 57.3 3.4 22.3 25.7 157.4 79.0 Eletta Campana 883038 0.63 0.86 230 277 286 507 59.6 2.2 22.1 24.3 122.9 55.1 Superfibra 883040 0.37 1.36 229 284 268 554 59.8 2.6 20.6 23.2 150.1 79.0 Rastslaviska 880816 0.22 1.83 212 268 256 556 67.8 4.2 13.4 17.6 110.1 50.5
Última edición por kalimocho; 23/03/2012 a las 00:42
hola soy nuevo por aqui y no se mucho de genetica pero dejando aparte descendencias etc. una planta a la que agregas ETEFON para que saque flores hembra, no seria una planta contaminada? aver si me explico conozco el proceso de feminizacion y las plantas modificadas con STS se desechan por estar contaminadas 'vamos que solo se aprovecha el polen que va a la hembra del clon macho al que le han puesto STS' (asi el STS no pasa a las semillas y son plantas completamente normales)
si tu haces una hembra de un macho con etefon, esa hembra sacara semillas contaminadas de etefon entonces seran completamente inviables ya sea por temas de germinación o otros aspecto, estoy en lo cierto?
no tengo mucha idea de genetica y esto pero solo lo comento por si no lo habiais pensado